This section focused on the Physical layer of networking

This focused on how bits are transmitted across wire and the differences between copper and fiber optic wires. It also focused on Pair Cabling and Duplexing. As well as Network Ports and Patch Panels. This section included a mini quiz on some of the concepts.




This section focused on the basic networking devices that would include copper/fibre optic cables, which included going over their pros and cons (Speed vs durability).

It also focused on network hubs which allow for many connections from computers and devices. And the switch (similar to a hub) a level 2 data link device which determines where each piece of data is sent as opposed to the hub.

It focused on routers devices that share data using the Border Gateway Protocol to send and receive traffic.

Servers and Clients the server being the host of data and information and the client being the receiver of the data.



These units had provided information on the TCP Five-Layer Network model as well as the OSI Networking Model.

The TCP model is based on a 5 layer system consisting of

5 Process & Applications Provide applications services to users and programs

4 Transport Handles data-consistency functions, i.e., provides a reliable byte stream between two nodes on a network. TCP and UDP work at this level.

3 Internet (sometimes called the Network Layer) Provides network addressing and routing, and does so in such a way as also to provide a common address space across multiple lower-level protocols. This makes possible the interconnection of networks that characterizes the Internet. The IP protocol operates at this level.

2 Network (sometimes called the Data Link Layer) This layer contains whatever IP will run over, e.g., Ethernet, token-ring, and Fiber Distributed Digital Interface (FDDI) networks. Individual network protocols, e.g., Ethernet, work at this level.

1 Physical Not really part of the model, since TCP and IP, as protocols, deal with software rather than hardware. This layer is generally thought of as referring to all hardware under the Network Layer.

The OSI networking model is based on a 7 layer model consisting of

7 Application
Deals with the interface between a user and the host computer: e.g., Microsoft Word translating a signal, initiated by the user’s typing in a string of characters and then depressing the “Search” function key, into instructions to Windows (or System X) to try to find that string in a file.

6 Presentation Deals with syntactic representation of data: e.g., agreement on character code (e.g., ASCII, extensions to ASCII, Unicode), data-compression and data-encryption methods, representations of graphics (e.g., files using the .PIC or .BMP formats)

5 Session Deals with creating and managing sessions when one application process requests access to another applications process (e.g., Microsoft Word importing a chart from Excel)

4 Transport Deals with data transfer between end systems; flow control for two computers (e.g., how Netscape on your PC talks with the UT Libraries Online Webpage)

3 Network Deals with establishing paths for data between a pair of computers and handling any switching among alternative routes between the computers, as well as with definitions of how to break files (or messages) up into individual packets of data, in such a way that the packets can be transmitted and then reassembled.

2 Data-Link Deals with the transmission of data frames (e.g., packets) over a physical link between network entities, including the incorporation of error-correction coding into the data frames.

1 Physical Deals with the physical (i.e., electrical and mechanical) aspects of transmitting data (e.g., voltage levels, pin-connector design, cable lengths, and grounding arrangements).


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This section taught me about how to effectively communicate with customers or employers, this section emphasized proper communication in a efficient and polite manner. Throughout this section it gave me a series of example scenarios and a general guideline of how to deal with situations.


linux vm

This lab was similar to the other Windows lab except for this one uses the Linux operating system.

Like the other lab the virtual machine can be accessed through the Google Cloud Console.

For this lab the goals are to install firefox, update vlc media player and uninstall GIMP.

For the initial setup of installing firefox you must first check if it is installed, using the command “dpkg -s firefox” to verify if its installed yet.
This will then be repeated to check for gimp “dpkg -s GIMP” and verifying the version of Vlc using¬†“dpkg -s vlc”.

Due to firefox being a common software that is installed on many linx machines you can install it using a command after updating the repository using the “sudo aptget update && sudo aptget install f” command.

From there you can install firefox using the “sudo aptget install firefox” From here you can confirm the installation when prompted.

To update the VLC Media Player you can run the command “sudo aptget install f” and complete the installation when prompted.

To remove GIMP you can run the command “sudo aptget remove gimp” in the terminal than complete the installation when prompted to.


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Through this lab I learned how to use a virtual machine (Using the Google Cloud Console) to install and update various software.

For this lab I had used the virtual machine to install Mozilla Firefox, update VLC Media player and uninstalling GIMP.

This lab was pretty straightforward as I’m primarily a Windows User but the portion of using a Virtual Machine is a great learning tool.



Today I worked on the Troubleshooting Best Practices Unit in the Week 6 lessons. This unit focuses on problem solving using the information available. This included troubleshooting problems you may encounter with technology, problem solving with a big focus on logical step by step thinking as well as communication.